Eye Anatomy

Don’t remember the lessons on eye anatomy from your high school biology class? That’s OK—we have provided the following eyeball illustration and terms just to give you a refresher course. And we won’t give you a pop quiz afterwards…

CORNEA: The cornea is the transparent front segment of the eye that covers iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, and provides most of an eye's optical power.
PUPIL: The pupil is the variable-sized, circular opening in center of iris; it appears as a black circle and it regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.
IRIS: The iris is the pigmented tissue lying behind cornea that (1) gives color to the eye, and (2) controls amount of light entering the eye by varying size of black pupillary opening; separates the anterior chamber from the posterior chamber.
LENS: The natural lens of eye is a transparent intraocular tissue that helps bring rays of light to focus on the retina.
RETINA: The retina is the part of the eye that converts images into electrical impulses sent along the optic nerve for transmission back to the brain. It consists of many named layers that include rods and cones.
MACULA: The macula is a small, specialized, central area of the retina responsible for acute central vision.
VITREOUS: The vitreous is a transparent, colorless, gelatinous mass that fills rear two-thirds of the interior of the eye, between the lens and the retina.
OPTIC NERVE: The optic nerve is the largest sensory nerve of the eye. It carries impulses for sight from the retina to vision centers in the brain.
SCLERA: The sclera is the white of the eye; a protective fibrous outer layer covers all of the eyeball except for the part covered by the cornea.
CILIARY BODY: The ciliary body is a muscular ring under the surface of the eye that helps the eye focus by changing the shape of the natural lens. It also produces aqueous humor.
CHOROID: The choroid is the vascular layer between the sclera and the retina. The blood vessels in the choroid help provide oxygen and nutrients to the eye.

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Dr.Yvonne D. McBride

Optometric Physician